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The Chandogya Upanishad English Translation
« on: June 24, 2015, 02:56:21 PM »
1. Let a man meditate on the syllable Om, called the udgitha; for the udgitha (a portion of the Sama-veda) is sung, beginning with Om.
The full account, however, of Om is this:-
2. The essence of all beings is the earth, the essence of the earth is water, the essence of water the plants, the essence of plants man, the essence of man speech, the essence of speech the Rig-veda, the essence of the Rig-veda the Sama-veda, the essence of the Sama-veda the udgitha (which is Om).
3. That udgitha (Om) is the best of all essences, the highest,   deserving the highest place, the eighth.
4. What then is the Rik ? What is the Saman? What is the udgitha? This is the question.
5. The Rik indeed is speech, Saman is breath, the udgitha is    the syllable Om. Now speech and breath, or.Rik and Saman, form one couple.
6. And that couple is joined together in the syllable Om. When two people come together, they fulfil each other's desire.
7. Thus he who knowing this, meditates on the syllable (Om), the udgitha, becomes indeed a fulfiller of desires.
8. That syllable is a syllable of permission, for whenever we permit anything, we say Om, yes. Now permission is gratification. He who knowing this meditates on the syllable (Om), the udgitha, becomes indeed a gratifier of desires.
9. By that syllable does the threefold knowledge (the sacrifice, more particularly the Soma sacrifice, as founded on the three Vedas) proceed. When the Adhvaryu priest gives an order, he says Om. When the Hotri priest recites, he says Om. When the Udgatri priest sings, he says Om, -- all for the glory of that syllable. The threefold    knowledge (the sacrifice) proceeds by the greatness of that syllable (the vital breaths), and by its essence (the ablations).
10. Now therefore it would seem to follow, that both he who knows this (the true meaning of the syllable Om), and he who does not, perform the same sacrifice. But this is not so, for knowledge and ignorance are different. The sacrifice which a man performs with knowledge, faith, and the Upanishad is more powerful. This is the    full account of the syllable Om.
                       
SECOND KHANDA

1. When the Devas and Asuras struggled together, both of the race of Pragapati, the Devas took the udgitha (Om), thinking they would vanquish the Asuras with it.
2. They meditated on the udgitha (Om) as the breath (scent) in the nose, but the Asuras pierced it (the breath) with evil. Therefore we smell by the breath in the nose both what is good smelling and what is bad-smelling. For the breath was pierced by evil. Then they meditated on the udgitha (Om) as speech, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we speak both truth and falsehood. For speech is pierced by evil.
4. Then they meditated on the udgitha (Om) as the eye, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we see both what is sightly    and unsightly. For the eye is pierced by evil.
5. Then they meditated on the udgitha (Om) as the ear, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we hear both what should be heard and what should not be heard. For the ear is pierced by evil.
6. Then they meditated on the udgitha (Om) as the mind, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we conceive both what should be conceived and what should not be conceived. For the mind is pierced by evil.
7. Then comes this breath (of life) in the mouth. They meditated on the udgitha (Om) as that. breath. When the Asuras came to it, they were scattered, as (a ball of earth) would be scattered when hitting a solid stone.
8. Thus, as a ball of earth is scattered when hitting on a solid stone, will he be scattered who wishes evil to one who knows this, or who persecutes him; for he is a solid stone.
9. By it (the breath in the mouth) he distinguishes neither what is good nor what is bad-smelling, for that breath is free from evil. What we eat and drink with it supports the other vital breaths (i.e. the senses, such as smell, & c.) When at the time of death he does not find that breath (in the mouth, through which he eats and          drinks and lives), then he departs. He opens the mouth at the time of death (as if wishing to eat).
10. Angiras meditated on the udgitha (Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be Angiras, i.e. the essence of the members (anginam    rasah)
11. Therefore Brihaspati meditated on udgitha (Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be Brihaspati, for speech is brihati, and    he (that breath) is the lord (pati) of speech
12. Therefore Ayisya meditated on the udgitha (Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be Ayasya, because it comes (ayati) from the mouth (.Asya) ;</p>
13. Therefore Vaka Dalbhya knew it. He was the Udgatri (singer) of the Naimishiya-sacrificers, and by singing he obtained for them their wishes.
14. He who knows this, and meditates on the syllable Om (the imperishable udgitha) as the breath of life in the mouth, he obtains all wishes by singing. So much for the udgitha (Om) as meditated on with reference to the body.

<h5 align="justify">THIRD KHANDA</h5>
<p>1. Now follows the meditation on the udgitha with reference to
the gods. Let a man meditate on the udgitha (Om) as he who sends
warmth (the sun in the sky). When the sun rises it sings as Udgatri
for the sake of all creatures. When it rises it destroys the fear
of darkness. He who knows this, is able to destroy the fear of darkness
(ignorance).</p>
<p>2. This (the breath in the mouth) and that (the sun) are the
same. This is hot and that is hot. This they call svara (sound),
and that they call pratyasvara (reflected sound). Therefore let
a man meditate on the udgitha (Om) as this and that (as breath and
as sun).</p>
<p>3. Then let a man meditate on the udgitha (Om) as vyana indeed.
If we breathe up, that is prana, the up-breathing. If we breathe
down, that is apana, the down-breathing. The combination of prana
and apana is vyana, back-breathing or holding in of the breath.
This vyana is speech. Therefore when we utter speech, we neither
breathe up nor down.</p>
<p>4. Speech is Rik, and therefore when a man utters a Rik verse
he neither breathes up nor down.</p>
<p>Rik is Saman, and therefore when a man utters a Saman verse he
neither breathes up nor down.</p>
<p>Saman is udgitha, and therefore when a man sings (the udgitha,
Om) he neither breathes up nor down.</p>
<p>5. And other works also which require strength, such as the production
of fire by rubbing, running a race, stringing a strong bow, are
performed without breathing up or down. Therefore let a man meditate
on the udgitha (Om) as vyana.</p>
<p>6. Let a man meditate on the syllables of the udgitha, i.e. of
the word udgitha. Ut is breath (prana), for by means of breath a
man rises (uttishthati). Gi is speech, for speeches are called girah.
Tha is food, for by means of food all subsists (sthita).</p>
<p>7. Ut is heaven, gi the sky, tha the earth. Ut is the sun, gi
the air, tha the fire. Ut is the Sama-veda, gi the Yagur-veda, tha
the Rig-veda. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of speech
itself, to him who thus knowing meditates on those syllables of
the name of udgitha, he becomes rich in food and able to eat food.</p>
<p>8. Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. Let a man thus meditate
on the Upasaranas, i. e. the objects which have to be approached
by meditation: Let him (the Udgatri) quickly reflect on the Saman
with which he is going to praise;</p>
<p>9. Let him quickly reflect on the Rik in which that Saman occurs;
on the Rishi (poet) by whom it was seen or composed; on the Devata
(object) which he is going to praise;</p>
<p>10. On the metre in which he is going to praise; on the tune
with which he is going to sing for himself;</p>
<p>11. On the quarter of the world which he is going to praise.
Lastly, having approached himself (his name, family, &amp;c.) by
meditation, let him sing the hymn of praise, reflecting on his desire,
and avoiding all mistakes in pronunciation, &amp;c. Quickly I will
the desire be then fulfilled to him, for the sake of which he may
have offered his hymn of praise, yea, for which he may have offered
his hymn of praise.</p>
<h5 align="justify">FOURTH KHANDA</h5>
<p>1. Let a man meditate on the syllable Om, for the udgitha is
sung beginning with Om. And this is the full account of the syllable
Om:-</p>
<p>2. The Devas, being afraid of death, entered upon (the performance
of the sacrifice prescribed in) the threefold knowledge (the three
Vedas). They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. Because
they covered (khad) themselves with the hymns, therefore the hymns
are called khandas.</p>
<p>3. Then, as a fisherman might observe a fish in the water, Death
observed the Devas in the Rik, Yagus, and Saman-(sacrifices). And
the Devas seeing this, rose from the Rik, Yagus, and Saman-sacrifices,
and entered the Svara, i.e. the Om (they meditated on the Om).</p>
<p>4. When a man has mastered the Rig-veda, he says quite loud Om;
the same, when he has mastered the Saman and the Yagus. This Svara
is the imperishable (syllable), the immortal, free from fear. Because
the Devas entered it, therefore they became immortal, and free from
fear.</p>
<p>5. He who knowing this loudly pronounces (pranauti) that syllable,
enters the Same (imperishable) syllable, the Svara, the immortal,
free from fear, and having entered it, becomes immortal, as the
Devas are immortal.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>